The following overview is excerpted from: Ketcham, R.A. (2005a) Computational methods for quantitative analysis of three-dimensional features in geological specimens. Geosphere, 1, 32-41.

Blob3D is designed for efficient measurement of up to thousands of discrete features (e.g. clasts, mineral grains, porphyroblasts, voids) within a single sample. Blob3D is unique because it gives the program operator primary control over data interpretation and measurement, and all computations are carried out in 3D, rather than individually on a series of 2D slices.

A “blob” is a contiguous set of voxels (3D pixels) that meets some user-defined criteria. Three steps are involved in Blob3D data processing. In the first step, Segment, a set of criteria are defined by the user that defines which voxels belong to the material of interest. The second step, Separate, distinguishes contiguous sets of segmented voxels (i.e. blobs) and allows the operator to divide interconnected or touching objects into individual objects. The third step, Extract, performs measurements on separated objects, such as size, shape, orientation, and contact relationships. Another feature in the Extract module allows the user to input sample coordinates (e.g. strike and dip) and the program calculates geographic coordinates for mineral grains or other features of interest in a sample.

Blob3D is a powerful quantitative tool for CT data and has been applied to the study of a wide variety of problems. Geological examples include textural analysis of porphyroblasts in metamorphic rocks (Ketcham et al., 2005), measurement of vesicles in meteoritic basalts (Benedix et al., 2003; McCoy et al., 2002) and troilite particles in chondritic meteorites (Nettles and McSween, 2006), and grading and orientation analysis of gold grains in ores (Kyle and Ketcham, 2003; Mote et al., 2005). It can also be used for engineering applications, such as quantifying aggregate clasts in asphalt concretes (Ketcham and Shashidhar, 2001) and the pore structure of tissue scaffolds (Dunkers et al., 2005). It can also be used for segmenting and quantifying complex three-dimensional structures such as nasal passageways (Rowe et al., 2005).

Click here to download Blob3D via ftp.


Example of BLOB3D processing for cluster of garnet porphyroblasts. Because garnet is the only porphyroblast, it can be segmented using a simple grayscale threshold (A, B). When inspected in two dimensions (B) and three dimensions (C) it is apparent that the cluster consists of four individual crystals. Separation was accomplished (D) using erosion-dilation operations. To estimate the extended volume and center of nucleation for lower-right crystal (E), a sphere primitive was fit to outer surface (F) by excluding from consideration points in contact with other garnet (from Ketcham, 2005a).


Example of typical processing operations in Separate module. Part A shows a sample of computed tomography (CT) data of a cluster of spheres; field of view is 70 mm. A three-dimensional volume searching algorighm finds all voxels in contact, up to limits imposed by computer memory (B); faces truncated by the algorithm are marked in red. “Stair steps” on upper and lower portions of spheres are caused by 3:1 voxel aspect ratio (inter-slice vs. inter-pixel spacing). An erosion/dilation operator successfully separates most of the spheres (C). Those contacting truncated faces have their processing postponed (D), allowing interior spheres to be processed (from Ketcham, 2005a).


Papers Utilizing Blob3D

Altman, S.J., Aminzadeh, B., Balhoff, M.T., Bennett, P.C., Bryant, S.L., Cardenas, M.B., Chaudhary, K., Cygan, R.T., Deng, W., Dewers, T., DiCarlo, D.A., Eichhubl, P., Hesse, M. A., Huh, C., Matteo, E.N., Mehmani, Y., Tenney, C.M., and Yoon, H. (2014) Chemical and hydrodynamic mechanisms for long-term geological carbon storage. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118, 15103-15113.
Alvarez-Barreto, J.F., Shreve, M.C., Deangelis, P.L., and Sikavitsas, V.I. (2007) Preparation of a functionally flexible, three-dimensional, biomimetic poly(L-lactic acid) scaffold with improved cell adhesion. Tissue Engineering, 13, 1205-1217.
Andronico, D., Corsaro, R.A., Cristaldi, A., and Polacci, M. (2008) Characterizing high energy explosive eruptions at Stromboli volcano using multidisciplinary data: an example from the 9 January 2005 explosion. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 176, 541-550.
Astolfo, A., Arfelli, F., Schültke, E., James, S., Mancini, L., and Menk, R.-H. (2013) A detailed study of gold-nanoparticle loaded cells using X-ray based techniques for cell-tracking applications with single-cell sensitivity. Nanoscale, 5, 3337-3345.
Bai, L., Baker, D.R., and Hill, R.J. (2010) Permeability of vesicular Stromboli basaltic glass: Lattice Boltzmann simultations and laboratory measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, 16.
Bai, L., Baker, D.R., Polacci, M., and Hill, R.J. (2011) In-situ degassing study on crystal-bearing Stromboli basaltic magmas: Implications for Stromboli explosions. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, 5.
Baker, D.R., Polacci, M., and LaRue, A. (2011) A study on the reproducibility of counting vesicles in volcanic rocks. Geosphere, 7, 70-78.
Balen, D., and Petrinec, Z. (2011) Contrasting tourmaline types from peraluminous granites: a case study from Moslavaca Gora (Croatia). Mineralogy and Petrology, 102, 117-134.
Benedix, G.K., Ketcham, R.A., McCoy, T.J., and Wilson, L. (2003) Vesiculation in ordinary chondrites due to impact melting: the “PAT” 91501 answers. LPSC XXXIV (Abstract #1947; CD-ROM).
Berger, A., Herwegh, M., Schwarz, J.-O., and Putlitz, B. (2011) Quantitative analysis of crystal/grain sizes and their distributions in 2D and 3D. Journal of Structural Geology, 33, 1751-1763.
Bernasconi, A., Diella, V., Marinoni, N., Pavese, A., and Francescon, F. (2012) Influence of composition on some industrially relevant properties of traditional sanitary-ware glaze. Ceramics International, 38, 5859-5870.
Brusseau, M.L., Peng, S., Schnaar, G., and Costanza-Robinson, M.S. (2006) Relationships among air-water interfacial area, capillary pressure, and water saturation for a sandy porous medium. Water Resources Research, 42, W03501.
Buran, B.N., Strenzke, N., Neef, A., Gundelfinger, E.D., Moser, T., and Liberman, M.C. (2010) Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 7587-7597.
Caricchi, L, Pommier, A., Pistone, M., Castro, J., Burgisser, A., and Perugini, D. (2011) Strain-induced magma degassing: insights from simple-shear experiments on bubble bearing melts. Bulletin of Volcanology, 73, 1245-1257.
Carlson, W.D., and Gordon, C.L. (2004) Effects of matrix grain size on the kinetics of intergranular diffusion. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 733-742.
Carroll, K.C., McDonald, K.,  Marble, J., Russo, A.E., and Brusseau, M.L. (2016) The impact of transitions between two-fluid and three-fluid phases on fluid configuration and fluid-fluid interfacial area in porous media. Water Resources Research, 51, 7189-7201.
Castro, J.M., Burgisser, A., Schipper, I., and Mancini, S. (2012) Mechanisms of bubble coalescence in silicic magmas. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 2339-2352.
Clark, A.N., Lesher, C.E., Jacobsen, S.D., and Wang, Y. (2016) Anomalous density and elastic properties of basalt at high pressure: Reevaluating of the effect of melt fraction on seismic velocity in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 121, 4232-4248.
Costanza-Robinson, M.S., Estabrook, B.D., and Fouhey, D.F. (2011) Representative elementary volume estimation for porosity, moisture saturation, and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media: data quality implications. Water Resources Research, 47, W07513.
Coelho, G., Branquet, Y., Sizaret, S., Arbaret, L., Champallier, R., and Rozenbaum, O. (2015) Permeability of sheeted dykes beneath oceanic ridges: Strain experiments coupled with 3D numerical modeling of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. Tectonophysics, 644-645, 138-150.
Chen, C., Wang, Z., Majeti, D., Vrvilo, N., Warburton, T., Sarkar, V., and Li, G. (2016) Optimization of Lattice Boltzmann Simulation With Graphics-Processing-Unit Parallel Computing and the Application in Reservoir Characterization. SPE Journal, 21, 11 pgs.
Chen, C. (2016) Investigation of Gas Transport in Shale Reservoirs Using Multiscale Modeling and Principal Component Analysis. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 28-30 September, Houston, Texas USA, 19 pgs.
Degruyter, W., Bachmann, O., and Burgisser, A. (2009) Controls on magma permeability in the volcanic conduit during the climactic phase of the Kos Plateau Tuff eruption (Aegean Arc). Bulletin of Volcanology, 72, 63-74.
Degruyter, Burgisser, A., Bachmann, O., and Malaspinas, O. (2010) Synchrotron X-ray microtomography and lattice Boltzmann simulations of gas flow through volcanic pumices. Geosphere, 6, 470-481.
Dunkers, J.P., Tesk, J.A., Dean, D., Cooke, M.N., Ketcham, R.A., and Cicerone, M.T. (2005) Quantitative analysis of a candidate porosity reference scaffold: Type 1. 2005 Summer ASME Bioengineering Conference, June 22-26, Vail, CO.
Dunkers, J.P., Leigh, S.D., Dean, D., Cooke, M.N., Ketcham, R.A., and Cicerone, M.T. (2007) Methodology for evaluating candidate geometric reference scaffolds. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 35, 1-8.
Dyess, J. E., Hansen, V. L., and Goscinak, C. (2015) Constrains on vorticity and non-coaxial shear direction in Neoarchean L-S tectonites, an example from northern Minnesota, USA. Precambrian Research, 256, 189-200.
Falvard, S., and Paris, R. (2016) X-ray tomography of tsunami deposits: Towards a new depositional model of tsunami deposits. Sedimentology, in press.
Fiege, A., and Cichy, S.B. (2015) Experimental constrants on bubble formation and growth during magma ascent: A review. American Mineralogist, 100-2426-2442.
Friedrich, J.M. (2014) A classroom-based distributed workflow initiative for the early involvement of undergraduate students in scientific research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 35, 1-8.
Friedrich, J.M., and Rivers, M.L. (2013) Three-dimensional imaging of ordinary chondrite microporosity at 2.6 micrometer resolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 116, 63-70.
Friedrich, J.M., Macke, R.J., Wignarajah, D.P., Rivers, M.L., Britt, D.T., and Ebel, D.S. (2008) Pore size distribution in an uncompacted equilibrated ordinary chondrite. Planetary and Space Science, 56, 895-900.
Friedrich, J.M., Wignarajah, D.P., Chaudhary, S., Rivers, M.L., Nehru, C.E., and Ebel, D.S. (2008) Three-dimensional petrography of metal phases in equilibrated L chondrites—: effects of shock loading and dynamic compaction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 275, 172-180.
Friedrich, J.M., Wignarajah, D.P., Chaudhary, S., Rivers, M.L., Nehru, C.E., and Ebel, D.S. (2008) Dynamic compaction of asteroids: impact-induced preferred 3D orientation of metal grains in L chondrites. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008, Baltimore, Maryland.
Friedrich, J.M., Troiano, J., Rumble III, D., and Rivers, M.L. (2011) Compositional studies of four low-FeO ordinary chondrites: is a new chondritic meteorite parent body necessary? 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract 1885, Houston, Texas.
Friedrich, J.M., Rivers, M.L., Perlowitz, M.A., Meinhart, Z., and Ramirez, V.V. (2012) Characterization of particle size standard NIST 1019b with synchrotron X-ray microtomography and digital data extraction. Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, 29, 35-42.
Friedrich, J.M., Ruzicka, A., Rivers, M.L., Ebel, D.S., Thostenson, J.O., and Rudolph, R.A. (2013) Metal veins in the Kernouvé (H6 S1) chondrite: evidence for pre- or syn-metamorphic shear deformation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 116, 71-83.
Fu, Y., Xie, H., Deng, B., Du, G., Chen, R., and Xiao, T. (2014) Three-dimensional structure of polystyrene colloidal crystal by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography. Materials Science & Processing, 115, 781-790.
Fu, Y., Xie, H., Deng, B., Du, G., Chen, R., and Xiao, T. (2015) Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast computed tomography study on self-assembly of polystyrene colloidal crystals via solvent evaporation. Colloid Journal, 77, 795-801.
Gaidies, F., Petley-Ragan, A., Chakraborty, S., Dasgupta, S., and Jones, P. (2015) Constraining the conditions of Barrovian metamorphism in Sikkim, India: P-T-t paths of garnet crystallization in the Lesser Himalayan Belt. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 33, 23-44.
Gardner, J.E., and Ketcham, R.A. (2011) Bubble nucleation in rhyolite and dacite melts: temperature dependence of surface tension. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 162, 929-943.
Giachetti, T., Burgisser, A., Arbaret, L., Druitt, T.H., and Kelfoun, K. (2011) Quantitative textural analysis of Vulcanian pyroclasts (Montserrat) using multi-scale X-ray computed microtomography: comparison with results from 2D image analysis. Bulletin of Volcanology, 73, 1295-1309.
Gopalakrishnan, K., Ceylan, H., and Inanc, F. (2007) Using X-ray computed tomography to study paving materials. Construction Materials, 160, 15-23.
Gostic, R.C. (2010) Characterization of plutonium particles originating from the BOMARC accident – 1960. PhD dissertation, Chemistry, The University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Gualda, G.A.R. (2006) Crystal size distributions derived from 3D datasets: Sample size versus uncertainties. Journal of Petrology, 47, 1245-1254.
Gualda, G.A.R., and Rivers, M. (2006) Quantitative 3D petrography using X-ray tomography: Application to Bishop Tuff pumice clasts. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 154, 48-62.
Gualda, G.A.R., Pamukcu, A.S., Claiborne, L.L., and Rivers, M.L. (2010) Quantitative 3D petrography using X-ray tomography 3: Documenting accessory phases with differential absorption tomography. Geosphere, 6, 782-792.
Hanna, R.D, Ketcham, R.A., Zolensky, M., and Behr, W.M. (2015) Impact-induced brittle deformation, porosity loss, and aqueous alteration in the Murchison CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 171, 256-282.
Harlan, S., Jenniskens, P., Zolensky, M.E., Yin, Q., Verosub, K.L., Rowland, D.J., Sanborn, M., Huyskens, M., Creager, E.R., and Jull, A.J.T. (2016) Meteorites found on Misfits Flat dry lake, Nevada. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 51, 757-772.
Hirsch, D.M. (2011) Reduce3D: a tool for three-dimensional spatial statistical analysis of crystals. Geosphere, 7, 724-732.
Huddlestone-Holmes, C.R., and Ketcham, R.A. (2010) An X-ray computed tomography study of inclusion trail orientations in multiple porphyroblasts from a single sample. Tectonophysics, 480, 305-320.
Jerram, D.A., and Higgins, M.D. (2007) 3D analysis of rock textures: quantifying igneous microstructures. Elements, 3, 239-245.
Jerram, D.A., Mock, A., Davis, G.R., Field, M., and Brown, R.J. (2009) 3D crystal size distributions: a case study on quantifying olivine populations in kimberlites. Lithos, 112, 223-235.
Ketcham, R.A. (2005a) Computational methods for quantitative analysis of three-dimensional features in geological specimens. Geosphere, 1, 32-41.
Ketcham, R.A. (2005b) Three-dimensional textural measurements using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Journal of Structural Geology, 27, 1217-1228.
Ketcham, R., A., and Hildebrandt, J. (2014) Characterizing, measuring, and utilizing the resolution of CT imagery for improved quantification of fine-scale features. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interaction with Materials and Atoms, 324, 80-87.
Ketcham, R.A., and Shashidhar, N. (2001) Quantitative analysis of 3-D images of asphalt concrete, Paper No. 01-0321. Transportation Research Board 80th Annual Meeting. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.
Ketcham, R.A., Meth, C., Hirsch, D.M., and Carlson, W.D. (2005) Improved methods for quantitative analysis of three-dimensional porphyroblastic textures. Geosphere, 1, 42-59. Supplemental material:
Krzesińska, A., Gattacceca, J., Friedrich, J.M., and Rochette, P. (2015) Impact-related noncoaxial deformation in the Pułtusk H chondrite inferred from petrofabric analysis. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 50, 401-417.
Kyle, J.R., and Ketcham, R.A. (2003) In-situ distribution of gold ores using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. Economic Geology, 98, 1697-1701. Supplemental material:
Kyle, J. R., and Ketcham, R. A. (2015) Application of high resolution X-ray computed tomography to mineral deposit origin, evaluation, and processing. Ore Geology Reviews, 65, 821-839.
Kyle, J.R., Mote, A.S., and Ketcham, R.A. (2008) High resolution X-ray computed tomography studies of Grasberg porphyry Cu-Au ores, Papua, Indonesia. Mineralium Deposita, 43, 519-532.
Lindgren, P., Hanna, R.D., Dobson, K.J., Tomkinson, T., and Lee, M.R. (2015) The paradox between low shock-stage and evidence for compaction in CM carbonaceous chondrites explained by multiple low-intensity impacts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 148, 159-178.
Liu, J., Pereira, G.G., Liu, Q., and Regenauer-Lieb, K. (2016) Computational challenges in the analyses of petrophysics using microtomography and upscaling: A review. Computers & Geosciences, 89, 107-117.
Mancini, S., Forestier-Coste, L., Burgisser, A., James, F., and Castro, J. (2016) An expansion-coalescence model to track gas bubble populations in magmas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 313, 44-58.
Marinoni, N., Voltolini, M., Mancini, L., and Cella, F. (2012) Influence of aggregate mineralogy on alkali-silica reaction studied by X-ray powder diffraction and imaging techniques. Journal of Materials Science, 47, 2845-2855.
May, S.M., Falvard, S., Norporth, M., Pint, A., Brill, D., Engel, M., Scheffers, A., Dierick, M., Paris, R., Squire, P., and Brückner, H. (2016) A mid-Holocene candidate tsunami deposit from the NW Cape (Western Australia). Sedimentary Geology, 332, 40-50.
McCoy, T.J., Ketcham, R.A., and Benedix, G.K. (2002) Vesicular basalts from asteroids: Clues to physical processes in their parent magmas. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIII, Abstract 1213. Lunar and Planetary Science Institute, Houston.
McDonald, K., Carroll, K.C., and Brusseau, M.L. (2016) Comparison of fluid-fluid interfacial areas measured with X-ray microtomography and interfacial partitioning tracer tests for the same samples. Water Resources Research, 52, 5393-5399.
Mote, A.S., Ketcham, R.A., and Watson, W.P. (2006) Extracting particle orientations from three-dimensional datasets using BLOB3D, in Desrues, J., Viggiani, G., and Besuelle, P., eds., Advances in X-ray tomography for Geomaterials, ISTE, London, 407-413.
Nachlas, W.O., Whitney, D.L., Teyssier, C., Bagley, B., and Mulch, A. (2014) Titanium concentration in quartz as a record of multiple deformation mechanism in an extensional shear zone. Journal of Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15, 1374-1397.
Narter, M.E. (2012) Characterizing non-wetting fluid in natural porous media using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. PhD dissertation, Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, 172 p.
Nettles, J.W., and McSween, H.Y. Jr. (2006) A comparison of metal-troilite grain size distributions for type 3 and type 4 ordinary chondrites using X-ray CT data. 37th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, League City, Texas.
Packman, A.I., Marion, A., Zaramella, M., Chen, C., Gaillard, J.-F., and Keane, D.T. (2006) Development of layered sediment structure and its effects on pore water transport and hyporheic exchange, in Kronvang, B., Faganeli, J., and Ogrinc, N., eds., The Interactions Between Sediments and Water, Springer, New York, 69-78.
Pamukcu, A.S. (2010) The evolution of the peach spring tuff magmatic system as revealed by accessory mineral textures and compositions. MS Thesis, Earth and Environmental Science, Vanderbilt University, 304 p.
Pamukcu, A.S., and Gualda, G.A.R. (2010) Quantitative 3D petrography using X-ray tomography 2: Combining information at various resolutions. Geosphere, 6, 775-781.
Pamukcu, A.S., Gualda, G.A.R., and Anderson, A.T. Jr. (2012) Crystallization stages of the Bishop Tuff magma body recorded in crystal textures in pumice clasts. Journal of Petrology, 53, 589-609.
Peng, D., Huang, T., and Meng, C. (2012) Study on imaging arsenic aggregates in porous media by X-ray difference micro-tomography. Advances in Materials Research, 356-360, 2362-2366.
Petley-Ragan, A., Gaidies, F., and Pattison, D.R.M.(2016) A statistical analysis of the distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole: implications for the kinetics of porphyroblast crystallization. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 34, 85-101.
Polacci, M., Baker, D.R., Mancini, L., Tromba, G., and Zanini, F. (2006) Three-dimensional investigation of volcanic textures by X-ray microtomography and implications for conduit processes. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L13312.
Polacci, M., Baker, D.R., La Rue, A., Mancini, L., and Allard, P. (2012) Degassing behaviour of vesiculated basaltic magmas: an example from Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu Arc. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 233-24, 55-64.
Porter, M.L. (2008) Investigating capillary pressure and interfacial area for multiphase flow in porous media using pore-scale imaging and Lattice-Boltzmann modeling. PhD dissertation, Water Resources Engineering, Oregon State University, 127 p.
Porter, M.L., and Wildenschild, D. (2009) Image analysis algorithms for estimating porous media multiphase flow variables from computed microtomography data: a validation study. Computational Geosciences, 14, 15-30.
Robert, G., Baker, D.R., Rivers, M.L., Allard, E., and Larocque, J. (2004) Comparison of the bubble size distribution in silicate foams using 2-dimensional images and 3-dimensional x-ray microtomography, in Bonse, U., ed., Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV, Proceedings of SPIE, 5535, Bellingham, WA, 505-513.
Rowe, T.B., Eiting, T.P., Macrini, T.E., and Ketcham, R.A. (2005) Organization of the olfactory and respiratory skeleton in the nose of the gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 12, 303-336.
Rowe, T.B., Luo, Z., Ketcham, R.A., Maisano, J.A., and Colbert, M.W. (2016) X-ray computed tomography datasets for forensic analysis of vertebrate fossils. Scientific Data, 3. 
Ruzicka, A., Brown, R., Friedrich, J., Hutson, M., Huge, R., and Rivers, M. (2015) Shock-induced mobilization of metal and sulfide in planetesimals: Evidence from the Buck Mountains 005 (L6 S4) dike-bearing chondrite. American Mineralogist, 100, 2725-2738.
Sasso, M.R., Macke, R.J., Boesenberg, J.S., Britt, D.T., Rivers, M.L., Ebel, D.S., and Friedrich, J.M. (2009) Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 44, 1743-1753.
Sasso, M.R., Macke, R.J., Britt, D.T., Rivers, M.L., Ebel, D.S., and Friedrich, J.M. (2009) Physical properties of incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites: implications for asteroidal structure and impact processing. 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The Woodlands, Texas.
Schnaar, G., and Brusseau, M.L. (2005) Pore-scale characterization of organic immiscible-liquid morphology in natural porous media using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Environmental Science Technology, 39, 8403-8410.
Schnaar, G., and Brusseau, M.L. (2006) Characterizing pore-scale configuration of organic immiscible liquid in multiphase systems with synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Vadose Zone Journal, 5, 641-648.
Schnaar, G., and Brusseau, M.L. (2006) Characterizing pore-scale dissolution of organic immiscible liquid in natural porous media using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Environmental Science Technology, 40, 6622-6629.
Schopa, A., Floess, D., de Saint Blanquat, M., Annen, C., and Launeau, P. (2015) The relation between magnetite and silicate fabric in granitoids of the Adamello Batholith. Tectonophysics, 642, 1-15.
Shields, J. K., Mader, H. M., Pistone, M., Caricchi, L., Floess, D., and Putlitz, B. (2014) Strain-induced outgassing of three-phase magmas during simple shear. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 6936-6957.
Shields, J. K., Mader, H. M., Caricchi, L., Tuffen, H., Mueller, S., Pistone, M., and Baumgartner, L. (2014) Unravelling textural heterogeneity in obsidian: Shear-induced outgassing in the Rocche Rosse flow. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 310, 137-158.
Som, S.M., Hagadorn, J.W., Thelen, W.A., Gillespie, A.R., Catling, D.C., and Buick, R. (2013) Quantitative discrimination between geological materials with variable density contrast by high resolution X-ray computed tomography: an example using amygdule size-distribution in ancient lava flows. Computers & Geosciences, 54, 231-238.
Som, S.M., Buick, R., Hagadorn, J.W., Blake, T.S., Perreault, J.M., Harnmeijer, J.P., and Catling, D.C. (2016) Earth’s Air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels. Nature Geoscience, 9, 448-451.
Subroy, V., Gimenez, D., Qin, M., Krogmann, U., Strum, P.F., and Miskewitz, R.J. (2014) Hydraulic properties of coarsely and finely ground woodchips. Journal of Hydrology, 517, 201-212.
Thissen, C.J., and Brandon, M.T. (2015) An autocorrelation method for three-dimensional strain analysis. Journal of Structural Geology, 81, 135-154.
Troiano, J., Rumble, D., III, Rivers, M.L., and Friedrich, J.M. (2011) Compositions of three low-FeO ordinary chondrites: indications of a common origin with the H chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 6511-6519.
Turk, J. K., and Graham, R. C. (2014) Analysis of vesicular porosity in soils using high resolution X-ray computed tomography. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78, 868-880.
Uchida, T., Wang, Y., Westferro, F., Rivers, M.L., Gebhardt, J., and Sutton, S.R. (2007) X-ray microtomography under high pressure, in Ohtani, E., ed., Advances in High-pressure Mineralogy, Geological Society of America, Washington, DC, 227-238.
Voltolini, M., Marinoni, N., and Mancini, L. (2011) Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography investigation of a mortar affected by alkali-silica reaction: a quantitative characterization of its microstructural features. Journal of Materials Science, 46, 6633-6641.
Voltolini, M., Zandomeneghi, D., Mancini, L., and Polacci, M. (2011) Texture analysis of volcanic rock samples: Quantitative study of crystals and vesicles shape preferred orientation from X-ray microtomography data. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 202, 83-95.
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